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Cervical Cancer Screening Programs

Global Operations

Organized and opportunistic cervical screening programs have been implemented by many countries to reduce the overall cervical cancer morbidity and mortality.

The Issue

Globally, cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women and the fourth most common cause of death (due to malignancy) in women. Early detection grants the best probability of survival. For this reason, both organized and opportunistic cervical screening programs have been implemented by many countries to reduce the overall cervical cancer morbidity and mortality.

However, even in highly developed countries with well-organized cervical screening programs, many women are annually diagnosed with advanced cervical cancer. This is likely due to the current broad use of cervical cytology as the current primary screening tool (where cytological evaluation has been shown to have a low sensitivity), combined with a degree of screening non-compliance (resultant in over-screening of a portion of the population and under-screening of other, usually, high-risk portion of the population).

Recent meta-analyses show that the most common cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women with normal cytology are similar worldwide, as are the types associated with cervical cancer. These findings yield an important indication that considerable improvement of the effectiveness of cervical cancer screening can be achieved by using high-risk HPV (hrHPV) DNA testing as a primary screening tool. For this reason, some countries have either recently altered their organized cervical cancer screening programs to include a hrHPV test method or are conducting pilot assessments utilizing HPV testing as a primary screening method.

Our Solution

The Center for Disease Detection (CDD) has developed an automated algorithmic approach to implementation of a primary HPV screening method, with confirmatory testing or close follow-up of positive results. This approach, like many others that are being adopted or piloted in developed countries, allows for utilization of the high sensitivity of hrHPV testing and confirmatory testing and follow-up of positive results, where a precursor lesion is not yet detected, in order to prevent unnecessary treatment for hrHPV infections that would otherwise resolve. This approach provides efficient and accurate results at a reasonable cost.

Logistical Solutions

Electronic Reporting

DD provides a software program that enables our clients to facilitate the ordering process (and more), whether standalone or integrated through an electronic health records (EHR) system. This technology is adaptable to both low- and high-volume workflows to allow for efficient processing on the client side. CDD’s streamlined electronic reporting sends report notifications directly to identified points-of-contact and allows result retrieval and advanced search options through our secure electronic website.

Data and Statistics

One of CDD’s core strengths is data management, representation, and analysis. CDD has an established history of sharing de-identified health data with public health authorities to provide a basis for informed decisions pertaining to health policy. CDD’s laboratory information system (LIS) provides a unique ability to track patient information and associated health statistics on a macro scale, without losing ability to review micro data when required.

Automatic Re-supply

We track the number of specimens we receive and automatically reorder your supplies for you. This is one less thing you need to remember to do.

Quality Control

CDD combines excellent laboratory management, effective Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), and comprehensive quality control and assurance (QC/QA) to maintain clinical laboratory excellence.

State-of-the-Art Technology

CDD’s automated equipment and highly trained staff allow us to provide accurate results in a timely manner at a very reasonable price.


CDD has full-time pathologists and pathology consulting services available, as-needed. In this regard, CDD is ready-to-assist with fast, reliable, interpretation of anatomic pathology specimens. Our pathologists are experienced in interpretation of biopsies of the uterine cervix (including loop electrosurgical excision and conization procedures), vulva, vagina, endometrium, as well as endocervical samplings.

Contact Us

For additional information, contact us at: [email protected].


Fontham ETH, Wolf AMD, Church TR, et al. Cervical cancer screening for individuals at average risk: 2020 guideline update from the American Cancer Society. CA Cancer J Clin. 2020 Jul 30. doi: 10.3322/caac.21628. Epub ahead of print.

Bernard E, Pons-Salort M, Favre M, et al. Comparing human papillomavirus prevalences in women with normal cytology or invasive cervical cancer to rank genotypes according to their oncogenic potential: a meta-analysis of observational studies. BMC Infect Dis. 2013 Aug 13;13:373. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-373.